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|Four Masters of Six Dynasties| the Six Dynasties is referred to Wu of Three Kingdoms,Eastern Jin,and Song,Qi,Liang and Chen of Southern Dynasties,which took Jiankang(Today's Nanjing,or also called Nanking)as capital.The Four Masters include Eastem Wu's Cao Buxing,Eastern Jin's Gu Kaizhi,and Southern Dynasties' Lu Tanhui(song) and Zhang Seng(Liang).
|Four Masters of Southern Song Dynasty| they are Li Tang,Liu Songnian,Ma Yuan and Xia Gui,who shared same imperial style of landscape paintings
|Four Masters of Yuan Dynasty| is referred to four representative landscapists of YuanDynasty.There are two kinds of saying about this.Some people say the Four Masters are Zhao Mengfu,Wu Zhen,Huang Gongwang and Wang Meng,While some otherpeople insist that the four painters are Huang Gongwang,Wang Meng,Ni Zan and Wu Zhen.The second version is most pupular.
|Four Masters of Ming Dynasty| Shen Zhou,WenZhengming,Tang Yin and Qiu Ying in the middle period of Ming Dynasty.They were on good terms due to the relation of teacher or friend,each of them featured characteristic style,impressing late generations very much.
|Four Kings of Qing Dynasty| Wang Shimin,Wang Jian,Wang Yu and Wang Yuanqi out of Six Masters of Qing Dynasty.They were on good terms due to the relation of teacher,friends or relative.Their style and artistic idea were much influenced on by Dong Qichang.They were famous for proficient skill,admired ancient masters,leading to a fixed pattern of their works,which had great influence on landscape painting of Qing Dynasty.
|Four Eminent Monks of Qing Dynasty| Hong Ren(Jiang,Tao),Kun Can(Liu,Jieqiu),Ba Da Shan Ren(Zhu,Da)and Shi Tao(Zhu,Ruoji),who lived in late Ming Dynasty and early Qing Dynasty.Out of them,Ba Da Shan Ren and Shi Tao were from royal family and became monks.The four monks were proficient in Buddhism,rendered their feeling to calligraphy and painting,creating aunique style.Kun Can,who was also called Shi Xi,and Shi Tao wereknown as Two Shis
|Eight Masters of Jinling| Gong Xian,Fan Qi,Gao Cen,Zou Zhe,Wu Hong,Ye Xin,Hu Zao and Xie Sun in late.Ming Dynasty and early Qing Dynasty.They were famous painters in Jinling(Nanjing today)then,but had different painting styles.Currently Fu Bashi,Qian Songyan,Wei Zixi,Song Wenzhi and Ah Mingworking in Nanjing Painting Institute are well-known painters.
|Six Masters in Qing Dynasty| landscapists Wang Shimin,WangYun,Wang,Wang Yuanqi,Wu Li and Yun Shouping in early Qing Dynasty.
|Eight Masters of Yangzhou| eight representative painters who lived in Yangzhou of Jiangsu during the regime of Emperor Qianlong in Qing Dynasty:Wang Shishen,Huang Shen,Jin Fa,Gao Xiang,Li Xian,Zheng Xie,Li Fangying and Luo Pin,According to some scholars,the eight masters should be Gao Fengxiang,Bian Shoumin,Yang Fazhe,Min Zhen and more.Most of their works are flower paintings,some landscape and portrait ones.These painters were innovative,depicted their real feeling with aid of painting.Their talents in poem,calligraphy,pinting and seal engraving and emphasis on unification of these skills have produced comsiderable influence on contemporary impressionistic style flower interest and technique.
|Shanghai painting school| also called Overseas School,a Chinese painting school.It's characteristic of creation,free schools and outstanding characters on the traditional basis;paying attention to personal character and mastery;and intimate contact with local art whereby works were admired by scholars and lay men alike,various overseas arts were very likely to be absorbed,The representatives include Zhao Zhiqian,Xugu,Ren Bonian,Wu Changsuo,Huang Binhong and more.
|Lingnan painting school| founded by Gao Jianfu together with Chen Shuren and Gao Qifeng.They paid attention to innovation of Chinese painting,integrating traditional painting withsome techniques of Japanese water color painting and western oil painting,forming an intermediate type between intellectual and imperial styles.It'scharacteristic of innovated Chinese style.Out of many great painters of this school are Guan Shanyue,Li Xiongcai,Zhao Shaomao,Yang Shanshen and more.
|Chang'an painting school| a painting style represented by Xi'an painters such as Shi Lu,Zhao Wangyun,He Haixia and Fang Jizhong.Mr.Zhao Wangyun is the founder of this school,and Mr.Shi Lu created new layout of major revolution events related painting using the style of traditional landscape.They created technique of loess Plateau wrinkle on the basis of traditional painting skill to display unlque dry and majestic geomorphy of morthern Shaanxi and local scenery.
2. Category of painting
|Chinese painting | Guohua in Chinese,one of Chinese traditionalfcrmative arts,an independent school in world fineart field.By painting types,it'sclassified into portrait,landscape,flower,fruit,feather,animal,fish & insect and more.Its technique includes elaborate style,impressionistic style(free sketch),outliningstyle,coloring,wash painting and more.Coloring includes gold and green,big and small,blue and green,non-bone(no contour),scribbling sketch,light color and more.It uses the technique of contour and change of ink,together with expression way of curve,wrinkle dot,dyeing,darkness,lightness,dryness,wetness,shade,brightness,front view,rear view,imagination,reality.Intenslveness and space.Since painting andcalligraphy originated from asme source,painting,callgraphy and seal engraving are interactive,forming remarkable artistic character.The painting material used is the Four Treasures in the Study.
|Ink painting | a type of Chinese painting accomplished using ink,dated from Tang Dynasty,formed in Song Dynasty,and popular in Yuan Dynasty.Paying attention to simplicity,symbolization and naturality.Since Ming and Qing dynasties,such paintinghas developed greatly.On the basis of technique of painting,ink was brought into full play."Ink is color",that is to say change of ink darkness gives different color layers."Ink is divided into 5 colors",it means various layers of ink can interpret different color effect.Wang Wei of Tang Dynasty thought highest of ink,this idea has been upheld by late generations. Since long,wash drawing has played an important role in the history of Chinese painting.
|Oil painting | a type of painting,an important member of western painting family.If uses linseed oil oil and walnut oil to mix pigments.Canvas,woodplate and cardboard arethe most popular painting material.Since the pigment has strong masking power,vwlidity and rich color effect can be expressed fully.Dated from 14th century in Greece,popular in Italy during the Renaissance period.In early 15th Century,Netherlands painter Van Dyck brothers reformed pigment mixing way,thus improved oil painting technique,enabling painters to paint freely with more layers and brighter color available.The innovated skill was popular with western painters.In early 20th Century,western painting department was launched in China'sartistic schools.
|engraving | a type of formative art or an independent art form.Using knife and pe as tools to engrave drawing on surface of different materials.By nature and material,it's class ified into garland(such as woodctu,gunny-glue) and intaglio(such as copperplate etching,lithograph).
|Opaque watercolor painting| a type of painting using water to mix plgment powder.Such painting can be painted on various paper,canvas or woodplate.The pigment has considerable coveringpower,and is not transparent,offering feeling of weight,brightness and liveliness.Most posters are opaque watercolor painting.
|Cartoon| a type of ironic and humorous painting.Painters get subjets from political events and daily life and display humorous pictures in the ways of exaggeration,metaphor,symbolization and impication to tease,criticize or praise somebody or something.Typically,cartoon is an art used for political and thought struggle.
|Xiao Pin(breif work)| term of Chinese painting,originally from buddhist sutra.Buddhists call book as"Da Pin" and brief book as"Xiao Pin".Brief Chinese painting works were popular in Song Dynasty.They didn't have fixed size and shape,but the brief sketch integrated painter's great effort.Small sketch represents more.
|Four Gentlemen |plum,orchid,bamboo and chrysanthemum.Such subjects symbolize noble character and honest&upright,persistent,dauntless and optimistic spirlf.
|Intellectuals'painting| Wenrenhua or Shidafuhua in Chinese,referring to paintings by intellectuals and officials of feudal societies in ancient China,distinct from imperial style paintings by commercial painters and court painters.Most subjects are landscape,flower&bird,plum,orchid,bamboo,chrysanthemum,tree and rock.The four elements are personal character,intellect,artistic talent and thoughts.Their paintings are implied with some meanings,such as personal ambition,and anger about national suppression and corrupt politics.Such paintings pay attention to literary talent,interest,feeling and concept.These paintings have considerable influence on development of aesthetics and techniques such as ink and free sketch.

Navigation£º¡¸Genre¡¢Categories of painting¡¹¡¸Calligraphy¡¢Inscriptions¡¹¡¸A Selected Chronlolgy¡¹
             ¡¸Method of Painting¡¢Tools of Painting¡¹¡¸Theoretics of Chinese painting¡¢Others¡¹
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